Clinical trials follow a typical series from early, small-scale, Phase 1 studies to late-stage, large scale, Phase 3 studies.
Below is the FDA’s outline of phases of studies. For more information, visit the FDA’s Clinical Research page.
Patients: 20 to 100 healthy volunteers or people with the disease/condition.
Length of Study: Several months
Purpose: Safety and dosage
During Phase 1 studies, researchers test a new drug in normal volunteers (healthy people). In most cases, 20 to 80 healthy volunteers or people with the disease/condition participate in Phase 1. However, if a new drug is intended for use in cancer patients, researchers conduct Phase 1 studies in patients with that type of cancer.
Phase 1 studies are closely monitored and gather information about how a drug interacts with the human body. Researchers adjust dosing schemes based on animal data to find out how much of a drug the body can tolerate and what its acute side effects are.
As a Phase 1 trial continues, researchers answer research questions related to how it works in the body, the side effects associated with increased dosage, and early information about how effective it is to determine how best to administer the drug to limit risks and maximize possible benefits. This is important to the design of Phase 2 studies.
Percentage of Drugs that Move to the next Phase 70%
Patients: Up to several hundred people with the disease/condition.
Length of Study: Several months to 2 years
Purpose: Efficacy and side effects
In Phase 2 studies, researchers administer the drug to a group of patients with the disease or condition for which the drug is being developed. Typically involving a few hundred patients, these studies aren’t large enough to show whether the drug will be beneficial.
Instead, Phase 2 studies provide researchers with additional safety data. Researchers use these data to refine research questions, develop research methods, and design new Phase 3 research protocols.
Percentage of Drugs that Move to the Next Phase 33%
Patients: 300 to 3,000 volunteers who have the disease or condition
Length of Study: 1 to 4 years
Purpose: Efficacy and monitoring of adverse reactions
Researchers design Phase 3 studies to demonstrate whether or not a product offers a treatment benefit to a specific population. Sometimes known as pivotal studies, these studies involve 300 to 3,000 participants.
Phase 3 studies provide most of the safety data. In previous studies, it is possible that less common side effects might have gone undetected. Because these studies are larger and longer in duration, the results are more likely to show long-term or rare side effects
Percentage of Drugs that Move to the Next Phase 25-30%
Patients: Several thousand volunteers who have the disease/condition
Purpose: Safety and efficacy
Phase 4 trials are carried out once the drug or device has been approved by FDA during the Post-Market Safety Monitoring
Source: Drug Development Process (FDA)